Breeds - buffalo
| ||MURRAH||• It is the most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Jind of Haryana and Nabha and Patiala districts of Punjab.
• Synonyms : Delhi, Kundi, Kali
• The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities sometimes found.
• The tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
• The body size is massive, neck and head are comparatively long.
• Head of females is short, fine and clear cut.
• Hips are broad and fore and hind quarters are drooping.
• The buffalo cows of this breed are one of the most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
• Butter fat content is 7% Average lactation yield is vary from 1500-2500 kg the average milk yield is 6.8 kg/day.
• While a few individual animals yield much as 19.1 kg/day.
• Age at first calving is 45-50 months and inter calving period is 450-500 days.|
| ||NILI RAVI||• This breed is found in Sutlej valley in Ferozpur district of Punjab and in the Sahiwal district of Pakistan.
(bred around Ravi river)
• Usually the colour is black with white marking on forehead, face, muzzle, legs and tail.
• The most desired character of the female is the possession of white markings.
• The head is elongate, bulging at top and depressed between eyes. The muzzle is fine.
• The frame is medium sized.
• The peculiarity of the breed is the wall eyes.
• The horns are small and coiled tightly. The neck is long, thin and fine.
• The milk yield is 1500-1850 kg per lactation and the inter calving period is 500-550 days.
• Age at first calving is 45-50 months.|
| ||BHADAWARI||• Agra and Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh.
• The body is medium size and wedge shaped. The head is comparatively small, the legs are short and stout, and the hooves are black. The hind quarters are uniform and higher than the forequarter.
• The body is usually light or copper coloured is a peculiarity of this breed. Eye lids are generally copper or light brown colour.
• Two white lines ‘Chevron’ are present at the lower side of the neck similar to that of surti buffaloes.
• Horns are black, curling slightly outward, downward before running backward parallel and close to neck, and finally turning upward.
• The average milk yield is 800 to 100 kg.
• The bullocks are good draught animal with high heat tolerance.
• The fat content varies from 6 to 12.5 per cent. This breed is an efficient converter of coarse feed into butterfat and is known for it high butter fat content.|
| ||JAFFARABADI||• These are massive animals found in their pure form in Gir forests. The breeding tract of this breed is Kutch, and Jamnagar districts of Gujarat.
• The head and neck are massive. The forehead is very prominent, wide with a slight depression in the middle.
• The horns are heavy, inclined to droop at each side of the neck and then turning up at point, but les tightly curved than in Murrah (drooping horns).
• The colour is usually black.
• The average milk yield is 100 to 1200 kg. These animals are mostly maintined by traditional breeders called Maldharis, who are nomads.
• The bullocks are heavy and used for ploughing and carting.|
| ||SURTI||• The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat.
• Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey. Skin is black or brown.
• The body is well shaped and medium sized; the barrel is wedge shaped.
• The head is long with prominent eyes.
• The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
• The colour is black or brown
• The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket.
• The milk yield ranges from 900 to 1300 kg.
• The age at first calving is 40-50 months with a intercalving period of 400-500 days.
• The peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12per cent).|
| ||MEHSANA||• Mehsana is a dairy breed of buffalo found in Mehsana town in Gujarat and adjoining Maharastra state.
• Body is mostly black; a few animals are black-brown in colour.
• The breed is supposed to have been evolved out of crossbreeding between the Surti and the Murrah.
• The body is longer than in Murrah and the limbs lighter.
• The head is longer and heavier.
• The horns usually are less curved at the end compared to Murrah breed but are longer and could be of irregular shape.
• The milk yield is 1200-1500 kg.
• The breed is supposed to have good persistency.
• The intercalving period ranges between 450-550 days.|
| ||NAGPURI (OR) ELLICHPURI||• The breeding tract of this breed is Nagpur, Akola and Amrawati districts of Maharashtra.
• These are black coloured animal with white patches on face, legs and tail.
• This is also called as Elitchpuri or Barari.
• The horns are long, flat and curved, bending backward on each side of the back almost to shoulder
(sward shaped horns).
• Horns of this type have a distinct advantage that they help the animals to protect themselves from wild animals and also easy to move in the forest.
• The face is long and thin. The neck is somewhat long.
• The average milk yield is 700-1200 kg per lactation.
• The age at first calving is 45-50 months with an inter-calving period of 450-550 days.|
| ||GODAVARI||• Godavari is a result of crossing of native buffaloes with Murrah bulls. The home tract is Godavari and Krishna deltaic area
• The animals are of medium stature with compact body. The colour is predominantly black with a sparse coat of coarse brown hair.
• Godavari buffaloes are reputed for high fat with daily average milk yield of 5-8 litres and lactation yield of 1200-1500 litres.
• The animals breed regularly and have a short calving interval compared to Murrah.|
| ||TODA||• Toda breed of buffaloes is named after an ancient tribe, Toda of Nilgiris of south India.
• Coat colour of the calf is generally fawn at birth.
• In adult the predominate coat colours are fawn and ash-grey.
• These buffaloes are quite distinct from other breeds and are indigenous to Nilgiri hills.
• The animals have long body, deep and broad chest, and short and strong legs.
• The head is heavy with horns set well apart, curving inward outward and forward.
• Thick hair coat is found all over the body. They are gregarious in nature.|
| ||PANDHARPURI||• Native of Kolhapur, Solapur districts in south Maharashtra.
• Body colour varies from light black to deep black.
• It is medium sized animal having long narrow face, very prominent and straight nasal bone, comparatively narrow frontal bone and long compact body.
• Typical characteristic of this breed is its horns which are very long, curved backward, upward and usually twisted outwards. The horns are very long extending beyond shoulder blade, sometimes up to pin bones|
| ||Luit buffalo (Swamp)||These are swamp buffaloes having 48 diploid no. of chromosome (2N) and distributed mostly in upper Brahmaputra valley of Assam.
These are also found in some areas of Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland bordering Assam. Luit is a medium sized black coloured buffalo with compact body and strong built up.
Forehead is broad with conical face and wide muzzle.
Eyes are prominent. Horns are broad at base, curved upward to form a semi circle and taper to a narrow tip. Light white stockings up to the knee are present in both fore and hind legs.
Tail is short reaching up to the hocks. Udder is bowl shaped and small in size.
Lactation milk yield ranges from 385 to 505kg.
Bullocks are excellent draft animals for carting and ploughing especially in muddy field for paddy cultivation.|
| ||Bargur buffalo||These buffaloes are found in the Bargur hills in Tamil Nadu.
Coat colors vary from black to light brown or brownish black.
Greyish white stockings from carpal/tarsal joint to fetlock are present predominantly in females.
These buffaloes are maintained under extensive system and are reared for manure, milk and meat (male calves are sold for cara-beef).
The animals are adapted to graze in the hilly terrain due its small size (about 102cm in height).
The milk yield of the animals ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 liters per day and mainly used for house hold consumption.|
| ||Marathwadi||Also known as “Ellichpuri” and “Dudhana Thadi”, the breed represents a very ancient indigenous type characterized with large built and long flat horns.
The breeding tract includes Parbhani, Nanded, Beed, Jalna and Latur districts of Maharashtra.
The breed is maintained for milk as well as draught/transport purposes.
The animals are greyish black to jet black in colour and white markings are sometimes present on forehead and lower parts of the limbs.
Horns are medium in length and parallel to the neck, reaching up to shoulder but never beyond shoulder blade. Distinguishing feature from Pandharpuri breed is the length of the horns, which reach only up to shoulder, unlike in Pandharpuri breed wherein they may even reach up to pin bones sometimes.
The animals are reared in semi-intensive management system in mixed herd comprising cattle and buffaloes. They are usually fed sorghum, paddy straw, sugarcane leaves/tops and grasses.
Milking animals are offered concentrate.
| ||Banni||Banni buffaloes are also known as “Kutchi” or “Kundi”.
The breeding tract includes the Banni area of Kutchchh district of Gujarat.
The breeds are mostly maintained by maldharis under locally adapted typical extensive production system in its breeding tract.
The animals are adapted to local conditions of Kutchchh such as repeated droughts, low availability of water, high ambient temperatures and low humidity etc.
Soil of Banni area is highly calcareous, saline and loam sandy with poor water holding capacity, low permeability and prone to erosion.
Banni buffaloes are trained to graze on banni grassland during night and brought to the villages in the morning for milking.
This traditional system of buffalo rearing has been adapted to avoid the heat stress and high temperature of the day.
Banni buffalo has unique qualities of adaptation such as the ability to survive water scarcity conditions, to cover long distances during periods of drought and disease resistance. |
| ||Chilika||The breed got its name from the name of its native tract, which is surrounding the Chilika lake in the State of Odisha.
The breeding tract of the breed includes Cuttack, Ganjam, Puri and Khurda districts of Odisha.
The area mostly comprises of saline zone.
These buffaloes feed on submerged weeds and aquatic vegetations in saly waters of chilika lake.Chilika buffalo is also known as “Deshi”.
Major utility of the breed is milk, manure and draught.
The colour of Chilika buffalo is brownish black or black.
The buffalo is medium sized with comp act body, strong legs and small udder.
Horns are black, straight, curved upward and inward.
Average lactation milk yield is 500 kg with an average milk fat of 8.7%.
The lactation milk yield ranges from 440 to 514 kilo grams and milk fat ranges from 8.5 to 8.8%.|
| ||Kalahandi||Named after the place of origin (Kalahandi in the State of Odisha), Kalahandi is a buffalo breed reared for milk, draught and manure.
It is also known as “Deshi”.
The breeding tract includes Kalahandi and Rayagada districts of Odisha.
Coat colour ranges from blackish grey to grey.
They have flat foreheads with golden hairs.
Few animals possess unique whitish marks in neck region.
Horns go horizontally backward, upward and inward to make a half-circle appearance.
The muzzle, eyelids, tail and hoofs are black in colour.
Head is convex, hump is small and the udder is round and medium in size.
Tail extends below hock with coarse hairs on switch.
The animals are well-adapted to low input extensive management system and graze in forest, hillocks, road-side vegetation or harvested vegetation throughout the day.
Buffaloes are milked only once in the morning before grazing.
Lactation milk yield is moderate, ranging from 680 to 912 Kg per lactation.