Breeds - freshwaterfishes

Breeds - freshwaterfishes

Breed Image Breed Name Description
Catla (Catla catla) imagesCatla (Catla catla)Catla is the fastest growing Indian major carp species and widely distributed throughout India, Nepal, Pakistan, Burma and Bangladesh. It inhabits the surface layer of water and feeds upon plankton. Adult stages are predominantly zooplankton feeder, occasionally taking in decaying macrovegetation, phytoplankton and smaller molluscs. It attains maturity in the second year of life and carry over 70 000 eggs per kg body weight. It naturally breeds in rivers during monsoon season and under control conditions in bundhs as well. It does not breed in ponds. However, it responds well to hypophysation techniques. Seeds are easily reared in undrainable ponds of relatively smaller size. Under composite fish culture in ponds it usually grows to over 1 kg in one year.
Rohu (Labeo rohita) imagesRohu (Labeo rohita)Rohu is the natural inhabitant of river systems of India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma. In recent years it has been transplanted to many countries of the world including Sri Lanka, Mauritius, USSR, Japan, Philippines, Laos, Malaysia and Thailand. Normally it occupies the column region of the aquatic ecosystem and feeds mostly on vegetable matter including higher plants, detritus, etc. Like catla it naturally breeds in rivers and under special conditions in bundhs. Except by hypophysation to which it responds quickly, it never breeds in ponds. It attains sexual maturity during the second year. However, certain percentages of pond-reared specimens mature within one year. Fecundity varies from 226 000 to about 2 800 000 depending upon the size. Rohu spawns during the monsoon (April — September). Seeds collected from rivers or produced by bundh breeding or induced breeding are reared with ease in seasonal or perennial undrainable ponds.
Mrigal (Cirrhinus mriqala) imagesMrigal (Cirrhinus mriqala)Mrigal inhabits all the major river systems of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma. The adult fish feeds upon filamentous green algae, diatoms, pieces of higher plants, decayed vegetable, mud and detritus. It is basically a bottom feeder and hence suitable for cultivation with column and surface feeder carps in ponds. Mrigal usually attains maturity within 1 or 2 years depending upon the agroclimatic conditions of the location. Fecundity ranges between 124 000 to over 1 900 000 depending upon size. Spawning season is linked with the onset and duration of the southwest monsoon. It does not breed in ponds, but can be easily bred in bundhs and by hypophysation. It is now being induced to breed twice within the same spawning season. Rearing of seed is usually undertaken in seasonal or perennial undrainable ponds. Under pond culture conditions it grows to over 1 kg in one year.
Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) imagesSilver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)Silver carp is basically inhabitant of major river systems of South and Central China and in the Amur Basin of USSR from where it has been transplanted throughout the Indo-Pacific region including India. It is a surface dweller feeding mainly upon zooplankton during its early stages and gradually becomes predominantly a phytoplankton feeder. Its relatively longer branchiospines provide a fine filter capable of retaining planktonic organisms. It readily accepts supplementary feed like oil cakes and rice bran mixture in pond culture systems. It does not breed in pond condition. However, through the technique of hypophysation they are induced to breed in ponds during the monsoon season. Fecundity varies greatly with the size and agroclimatic condition. A fecundity range of 145 000 to 2 044 000 has been found from silver carp. It takes about 2–6 years to mature in China, whereas in India it matures very early, within 2 years. Males mature earlier than the females.
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) imagesGrass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)Grass carp is a native of the river systems of South-Central and North China, and the Amur river of USSR. Its suitability in aquaculture and biological control of aquatic weed infestation has resulted in wide-scale transplantation throughout the world. In early life it feeds on planktonic organisms and gradually switches over to macrophytes. They are voracious eaters and show distinct preference for vegetable food materials such as grass, leaves, weeds, etc. However, they also accept supplementary artificial feed materials. Usually only a portion of ingested food is digested and the rest is voided in semidigested or undigested form which, in turn, becomes choice food for the bottom dweller common carp. In China it takes about 3–4 years to achieve maturity whereas in India it usually takes 2 years. The total number of eggs range between 308 800 and 618 100 from the fishes weighing between 4.7 kg to 7.0 kg.
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) imagesCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio)Originally a native of temperate region of Asia, especially China, the common carp is now the most domesticated and cultivated carp species throughout the world. It is an omnivorous bottom dweller subsisting mainly on benthic fauna and decaying vegetable matter. It frequently burrows the pond bottom in search of food. This habit of digging the pond bottom helps in maintaining the productivity of undrainable ponds and hence culture of common carp with other carp species is of great advantage. Moreover, it also feeds directly on the undigested excreta of grass carp. Growth mainly depends upon the bottom biota, stocking density and the rate of supplementary feed. In composite fish culture ponds it grows to about 1 kg within one year. In a tropical climate it spawns throughout the year in the pond environment with two peak periods, one from January to March and the other during July and August. Eggs are small and adhesive in nature.